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Written By: Robert E. Sheriff, MS, CIH, CSP, President
April 5, 2020; updated August 12, 2021
The amount of fresh air—outside air—that needs to be introduced into a building varies widely depending upon the activity and level of occupancy.
Air Changes per Hour (ACH)
The most common term used to refer to the amount of outside air that needs to be introduced into a building is Air Changes per Hour (ACH). The ACH can vary widely depending upon what is going on inside the building: for example – it is generally considered that 4 ACH’s is the minimum air change rate for any commercial or industrial building. Other examples are Classrooms, 6 – 20 ACH ( a lecture hall or a chemical laboratory?); Machine Shops, 6 – 12 ACH; warehouses, 6 – 30 ACH.
It is important to note that the application of the ACH concept is only intended as a general reference and does not include dealing with a specific situation where air contaminants are involved that require local exhaust ventilation to capture a chemical, dust, or gas before it gets into the building’s air stream.
The following is a good reference table for some of the more common building use and the ACH for those uses. The following list comes from “The Engineering Toolbox” website at www.engineeringtoolbox.com and is a valuable reference for ACH’s.
|Building/Room||Air Change Rate in ACH|
|All Areas in General||4|
|Auditorium||8 – 15|
|Bakeries||20 – 30|
|Beauty Shops||6 – 10|
|Boiler Rooms||15 – 20|
|Classrooms||6 – 20|
|Computer Rooms||15 – 20|
|Dental Centers||8 – 12|
|Garages –Repair||20 – 30|
|Hospital Rooms||4 – 6|
|Kitchens||15 – 60|
|Machine Shops||6 – 12|
|Malls||6 – 10|
|Municipal Buildings||4 – 10|
|Police Stations||4 – 10|
|Precision Manufacturing||10 – 50|
|Shops, Paint||15 – 20|
|Theatres||8 – 15|
|Warehouses||6 – 30|
|Waiting Rooms, Public||4|
Please note, the above list identifies ACH rates without special consideration for industrial/commercial processes that may introduce air contaminants into the air that should be controlled through the use of local exhaust ventilation.
MEASURING THE ACH 0 Two (2) Methods
There are two methods of determining the ACH rates in a building.
The first, and most apparent, is directly measuring the air flows.
The second method involves using a tracer gas in the measured air and recording its decline over time to determine the ACH.
ACTUAL MEASUREMENT OF AIR FLOWS
Using a velometer, thermometer or vane anemometer, the industrial hygienist takes airflow measurements at all the exhaust and air supply points, including all the local exhausts that may be used to control specific operations. The calculation of ACH is simple.
ACH = total air supply rate (feet/minute) x 60 minutes
The Volume of space (ft3)
or ACH = total air exhaust rate (feet/minute) x 60 minutes
The Volume of space (ft3)
Which is better—using air supply totals or air exhaust rate totals?
Generally, using air exhaust rates is better only because most buildings exhaust more air than they supply. A condition often referred to as “Negative Pressure.” For example, it’s hard to open the Machine Shop’s door due to the lack of make-up air compared to exhaust volume.
Ideally, the best situation is to measure both exhaust and supply air. This will tell you what may have to be done to balance better the supply and exhaust air—usually to release the “negative pressure” condition in the building.
A negative pressure condition (too much exhaust—not enough supply) also creates temperature control problems, such as loading docks becoming too cold, and the opposite side of the building becoming too hot. The strong negative pressure also reduces the ACH because the fans must work harder using more electricity and develop less exhaust volume than desired. Yes, I know… it is very costly to heat or A/C the additional supply air.
Start On The Roof
When taking the airflow measurement, the roof is usually the best place to start. It may require drilling a small hole into the ductwork to traverse the duct to get an average airflow rate. (Don’t drill the hole too near the fan or a direct elbow if possible—too much turbulence—select a spot where laminar/linear flow is better.
For wall fans, conduct a traverse across the face of the floor as well. The ideal traverse is equal but measurement at ½ inch or 1-inch intervals is more practical.
There are other ways to measure the adequacy of air movement in a building. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, Air Conditioning Engineers) has established, ‘Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality” ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2016 which is primarily designed based upon human occupancy and recommends a specific volume of air per occupant. Example: lecture classroom – 7.5 CFM/person, beauty and nail salons – 20 CFM/person. This will be discussed in other articles—go to www.atlenv.com-newtecharticles-industrialhygienenews-ventilation.
Contaminant Control Ventilation
As mentioned earlier, local exhaust ventilation is the more appropriate method of capturing emissions from a particular process before it can get into the workroom’s air-for example, Paint Spray, Booth, Welding, Chemical Blending, Grinder Dust. The best reference for this approach is the ACGIH Publication, “Industrial Ventilation—A Manual of Recommended Practice,” 30th edition, a two-volume set.
Using a Tracer Gas
The method of using a tracer gas to measure air changes per hour (ACH) is covered in other articles related to ventilation on our website. Also, under: Ventilation.
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